1.2. Alexander The Great and the Greek Influences
Alexander the Great believed to be a descendant of the Greek heroes Herakles and Achilles, which is why he wanted to follow in their footsteps. 334 B.C. Alexander invaded the Persian Empire with 30,000 soldiers and thus started his conquests.
He conquered huge parts of Asia and Northern Africa. The Oracle of Zeus at the oasis Siwa declared Alexander to be a son of Zeus. In Egypt, he had himself declared the Pharaoh; like he had already did in Greece, he also claimed here to be a son of the Gods and thus meant to rule over Egypt.
In 332 BC he founded the city of Alexandria, also called Alexandretta, which today lies in Northern Egypt at the Mediterranean Sea.
One of the Seven Wonders of the World, the famous Lighthouse, was built in Alexandria. It was finished on the island of Pharos in the harbor of Alexandria in 279 BC, after 20 years of construction.
Alexander the Great died of a fever on June 11th, 323 BC, in Babylon, which he had conquered only three months prior. He was 32 years old.
Up till this point, Alexander the Great had conquered a gigantic territory, from Greece and Macedonia over Turkey, Persia and Pakistan to the Indian Panjab. In the west, he had brought the complete coast of the Mediterranean right down to Alexandria in Egypt under his influence.
Alexander stayed in India and Pakistan for over four years. He founded several cities there, which became the centers of commerce between Asia and Europe for almost a thousand years, until the invasion of Mahmoud of Ghazna and the religious restructuring of the region.