2.5.10. 1906 bis 1920

1907. Many Roma in Germany leave for other countries in Western Europe.

Django Reinhardt, famous jazz/blues guitarist, is born in Ouchie, Belgium.

1908. The Children's Act in England makes education compulsory for travelling Gypsy children, but only for half the year. This is continued in the the 1944 Education Act, but many Gypsy children still have no schooling.

1909. Switzerland asks Germany, Italy, France and Austria to exchange information on the movements of Roma across their shared borders, and while this is unsuccessful, the Swiss Department of Justice begins a national register of Roma, based upon the Munich model.

Recommendations coming from a "Gypsy policy conference" in Hungary include the confiscation of their animals and carts, and permanent branding for purposes of identification.

1912. The French government introduces the carnet anthropométrique, a document containing personal data, including photograph and fingerprints which all Roma are required to carry. This remains in effect until 1970.

1914. A new law prohibits all further immigration of Roma into Sweden. The law is very efficient and Roma in Sweden are isolated from their relatives in other European countries. The law remains in effect until 1954. Norway and Denmark have similar laws during the same period.

Norway gives some thirty Roma Norwegian nationality.

1918. In Holland, the Caravan and House Boat Law introduces controls over the movements of nomads.

1919. Article 108 of the National Constitution of the Weimar Republic guarantees Roma and Sinti full and equal citizenship rights, but these are not heeded.

In Bulgaria, the Romani organisation Istiqbal (Future) is founded.

1920. On July 27th, the Minister of Public Welfare in Düsseldorf forbids Roma and Sinti from entering any public washing or recreational facilities (swimming pools, public baths, spas, parks).

In Germany, psychiatrist Karl Binding and magistrate Alfred Hoche argue for the killing of those who are "Ballastexistenzen," i.e. whose lives are seen merely as ballast, or dead weight, within humanity; this includes Roma. The concept of Lebensunwertesleben, or "lives unworthy (or undeserving) of life," becomes central to Nazi race policy in 1933, when a law incorporating this same phrase is issued by Hitler on July 14th that year.

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